venerdì 17 dicembre 2010

Hypertensive intracranial hemorrhage


Axial CT of the head shows a large hyper dense focus with peripheral hypo density in the left frontal lobe, causing sulcal effacement at the frontal cortex but no significant midline shift. Surrounding rim of low density represents edema (image 1). Unenhanced MRI of the brain shows an the same mass-like focus in the left frontal lobe, which has an isointense center with a hyper intense rim (image 2). Post gadolinium-enhanced T1 image of the brain shows no internal enhancement of this lesion (image 3).

Differential diagnosis:
- Hypertensive intracranial hemorrhage
- Ruptured arteriovenous malformation (AVM)
- Hemorrhagic intracranial mass
- Posttraumatic cerebral contusion

Diagnosis: Hypertensive intracranial hemorrhage

Acute blood appears hyper dense of unenhanced head CT.
Without a history of trauma, intraparenchymal brain hemorrhage on head CT could represent a hemorrhagic mass, a ruptured AVM, or a hemorrhagic brain tumor (primary or metastatic).
MRI with and without contrast is the best diagnostic tool for determining if a mass lesion is present, and for evaluating the age of the intracranial hemorrhage.
Acute blood products on T1 appear hypo intense to isointense (image 2), whereas subacute and chronic hematoma are hyper intense.
Neoplasms should enhance on post contrast T1. The lack of enhancement in this patient on post contrast T1 excludes neoplasm (image 3).

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