giovedì 16 dicembre 2010

Sequestered disk


There is an non- enhancing ovoid mass slightly hyper intense to muscle on both T1 and T2 sequences, in the anterior epidural space at the L3 level, measuring approximatelyl 12 x 8 x 12 mm. This is not contiguous with any adjacent disks. No signal dropout on fat-saturated sequences. The mass causes severe stenosis of the left half of the spinal canal at the L3 level, compressing the left descending nerve roots. T1 and T2 hyper intensity at the endplates abutting L2-L3 disc space representing Modic Type II changes. There is intervertebral disk space height loss at L2-L3 with severe disk desiccation changes.

Differential diagnosis:
- Sequestered disk
- Extruded disk
- Failed back surgery
- Epidermoid
- Epidural abscess
- Epidural hematoma
- Lipoma

Diagnosis: Sequestered disk

A focal disk protrusion is an extension of intervertebral disc material (nucleus pulposus) beyond the vertebral margin (AP diameter < mediolateral diameter). An extruded disk is one in which the nucleus pulposus has herniated through a rent in the annulus fibrosis. The AP diameter > ML diameter, and the disk may migrate craniocaudally, but maintains attachment to the parent disk (frequently symptomatic).
When extruded disk material loses its attachment to the parent disk, it is referred to as a sequestered disk. Sequestered discs usually lodge in the anterior epidural space (AES), just anterior to the posterior longitudinal ligament, and migrate either cephalad or caudad (with equal frequency). Because there is a midline septum associated with the PLL in the AES, the fragment is usually just off midline (to the right or left). Rarely, the sequestered fragment may migrate beyond the PLL into the posterior epidural space, through the dural ( intrathecal location), or into the paraspinal muscles.
They usually resemble the parent disk on MR, with T1 hypo intense and T2 iso- / hypo intense. There may be surrounding T2 hyper intensity and a rim of enhancement from inflammatory changes.
This is a crucial diagnosis to make, as a sequestered disk is a contraindication to limited disk procedures (e.g. Percutaneous discectomy) and may result in failed back surgery.

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