venerdì 24 dicembre 2010

Pseudotumor cerebri - Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension (IIH)


T2W axial MRI (Figure 1) shows signs of increased ICP, but only increased fluid within the optic nerve sheaths, flattening of the posterior orbit, and a partially empty sella.
The 3D TOF MRV Towne and RPO projections (Figure 2 and Figure 3) show bilateral, right greater than left, focal transverse-sigmoid venous sinus junction narrowing’s. It is not a normal MRV given the pt’s history, with more explanation in the discussion. There is no aneurysm or collection of collateral blood vessels seen in these images.

The AP and lateral (Figure 4 and Figure 5) venous phase carotid arteriogram shows long segment stenosis at transverse-sigmoid venous sinus junction distal to the vein of Labbé. Pre procedure venography showed a venous pressure gradient across this lesion of 17 mmH2O with 37 mmH2O on transverse sinus side and 15 mmH2O on internal jugular vein side.

AP and lateral (Figure 6 and Figure 7) venous phase carotid arteriogram shows long segment stenosis at transverse-sigmoid venous sinus junction with a balloon crossing the gradient lesion.

Diagnosis: Pseudotumor cerebri - Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension (IIH)

Pseudotumor cerebri is defined by typical clinical symptoms which occur in the setting of elevated “idiopathic” ICP and a normal composition of CSF. Classic clinical symptoms include diffuse recalcitrant headaches, vision changes (including vision loss), and hearing changes (e.g., tinnitus), and the disease is typically seen in obese women who are 20-50 years of age. Papilledema is the most common physical exam finding, but visual loss and sixth nerve palsy are also seen. Other symptoms include disabling headaches and blindness. LP opening pressure is greater than 25 cm H2O. Brain computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are typically normal, however, the following suggestive non-pathognomonic findings are frequently present:

– Cerebral venous sinus stenoses
– Flattening of the bilateral posterior sclera
– Partially or fully empty sella; enlargement of the chiasmatic recess of the 3rd ventricle
– Distension of perioptic nerve subarachnoid space
– Intraocular protrusion of the optic nerve head
– Orbital optic nerve vertical tortuosity

Treatment for pseudotumor cerebri typically includes medical management with acetazolamide and pain control for headaches. Furosemide and corticosteroids have been used, as well. Surgical interventions to treat pseudotumor cerebri include lumboperitoneal shunt (LPS) and ventriculoperitoneal shunt (VPS), which often produce immediate results, however, eventual return of pseudotumor symptoms occur in approximately 50% within three years. Optic nerve sheath fenestration is also used to treat vision changes, with variable headache relief. Dominant transverse/sigmoid venous sinus angioplasty and stenting are relatively new methods for the treatment of pseudotumor cerebri for those who have significant dural sinus stenosis. Given that 80% of intracranial vascular compliance is provided from the venous vasculature, reduction of pressure in the sinuses reduces CSF pressure. Better results are achieved in patients with documented high pressure gradients, and greater efficacy is seen with regard to arrest of visual loss (>90%) than with headache relief (~50%). Long-term results are lacking. however.

In this case, cerebral angiography demonstrated bilateral high-grade transverse/sigmoid sinus stenoses distal to vein of Labbe insertions. Selective catheterization of the right transverse sinus revealed an estimated 80% narrowing to a luminal diameter of 1mm, and a pressure gradient across the stenosis of 13 mmHg (normal <5 mmHg). The contralateral sinus was smaller, but distally stenotic. A stent was placed across the right sided stenosis.
The patient was placed on antiplatelet medication to preserve stent patency immediately after the procedure. She had no headaches after the procedure and demonstrated objective visual improvement at her one- and six-week follow-up examinations.

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