venerdì 23 febbraio 2007
Axial T1W image without contrast showed a small, rounded mass lesion in the right half of the quadrigeminal plate cistern that is minimally hyper intense to adjacent CSF. Minimal mass effect. Axial post contrast T1W shows no enhancement of the mass lesion. Axial T2W shows the same mass as the T1 image. On T2 images it is minimally hypo intense to CSF. Coronal post contrast T1W shows the lesion in the region of the quadrigeminal plate cistern. Mass is slightly hyper intense to CSF, but does not show post contrast enhancement. Diffusion weighted images show the mass to be markedly hyper intense.
- Arachnoid Cyst
- Parasitic infection (e.g. Cysticercosis)
Diagnosis: Epidermoid (presumed diagnosis)
Intracranial epidermoid represents up to 1.8% of all primary intracranial tumors. They are the most common congenital intracranial tumor. They represent the third most common CPA/IAC mass after schwannoma and meningioma.
They most commonly present with headaches and possibly with cranial nerve palsies, typically of the 5th, 7th, and 8th nerves. They may remain clinically silent for many years. There is no gender predilection. Their presentation peaks at age 40 and has a range of 20 – 60 years of age.
As the have epithelia components they grow slowly. They can cause chemical meningitis if they leak and rarely have been reported to undergo malignant transformation to squamous cell carcinoma.
Treatment involves microsurgical resection which can be complicated by encasement of surrounding structures. Recurrence is common if they are not completely resected and seeding of the subarachnoid space has been reported.
Epidermoid typically follow CSF density and may encase surrounding structures. Most commonly they are found in the CP angle (40-50%). They can also commonly be found in the fourth ventricle and middle cranial fossa, typically para-sellar. Occasionally they can be found within the skull and spine.
CT findings: Most are hypo dense, although 10-25% will have calcifications. They typically do not show post contrast enhancement however may have minimal enhancement at the margin. There is a rare variant which may be dense secondary to hemorrhage or high protein.
MRI findings: Again they are similar to CSF on T1 and T2 pulse sequences. On T1 they are slightly hyper intense to CSF and on T2 they are isointense to slightly hyper intense to CSF. Intensity will be altered depending on the cyst contents. Minimal enhancement can be seen at the margins. They key distinguishing feature is the appearance on diffusion weighted images which is markedly intense, "light bulb bright". On ADC mapping they are isointense to brain parenchyma.
The differential diagnosis includes arachnoid cyst, which follow CSF signal on all sequences and does not show restricted diffusion. Arachnoid cysts typically displace adjacent structures whereas epidermoid lesions encase them. Cystic neoplasm's often enhance and do not follow CSF signal. Dermoid cysts are typically heterogeneous on MR and more closely follow fat signal characteristics. Additionally dermoid are typically midline. Inflammatory cysts typically enhance and have surrounding edema and/or gliosis.